Writen by Lisa Guy I Photography by Nadia Harrison @photocollective.co

Milk is a complicated subject. Not only is there full-fat, skinny, skim, but also now soy, almond, oat, and the list goes on. What are we supposed to give our children? Lisa Guy looks at the nutrients of the differing varieties so that a more informed decision can be made.

With so many different types of milk on the market these days, going to the supermarket to buy milk for your family is not the simple task it once was.
There are so many varieties of cow’s milk alone including whole, skim, low-fat, A2, organic and lactose-free, and then non-dairy varieties such as almond, soy, rice, oat and now even quinoa thrown in to make the whole milk thing very confusing.
On the plus side, there is now plenty of choice for parents with children on special-need diets or who have allergies or lactose intolerances. The tricky bit is making sure that from those available or out of those that may be consumed, you choose the right type of milk for your child that will provide them with the important nutrients they need for good health, and optimal growth and development.
Choosing which milk to first give your baby is an important decision. Toddlers aged 1-2 years have unique nutritional requirements that differ from older kids and adults. Toddlers have higher fat requirements, and need adequate protein and calories for optimal growth, and specific vitamins and minerals such as calcium, and vitamin A and D.
Different milks vary in nutrient profiles, so it is important to compare nutrient levels before you buy. It is also recommended to seek advice from a professional nutritionist or naturopath before making major changes to your child’s diet, such as removing dairy. Here is a profile of some of the more common milks available from health food stores and supermarkets.

COW’S MILK
Cow’s milk is one of the major sources of calcium in most children’s diets. Cow’s milk provides more calcium than other milks, which is essential for growth of strong healthy bones and teeth, and is a rich source of protein, providing 8g per cup. Calcium is also important for healthy nerve and immune function. Cow’s milk is fortified with vitamin D, which is needed to enhance calcium absorption and bone development. Cow’s milk is also a very good source of riboflavin, which helps produce energy, B12 for normal nerve function, and vitamin A to make sure your child has a strong immune system and healthy eyesight.
If choosing cows milk, you should only give whole or full-fat milk, with 4% saturated fat, to children under the age of 2. Babies need higher fat, energy-dense foods to fuel their rapidly growing bodies. Children over 2 however can be given reduced or low fat milk, which has 1-2% saturated fat. Skim milk, with only 0.1% fat, is not recommended for children under the age of 5.

‘There are so many varieties of cow’s milk … and then non-dairy varieties … and now even Quinoa thrown in to make the whole milk thing very confusing.’

When is the best time to introduce cow’s milk?
If there is no family history of cow’s milk allergies or lactose intolerance you can start to use a little full-fat cow’s milk in your infant’s meals such as porridge or sauces around 9-10 months of age. After their first birthday you can start offering them plain milk drinks and healthy milk fruit smoothies. Don’t ‘fill’ your kids with milk though, as they may not eat other important foods, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies and associated health problems, like anemia. Under the age of 1, breast milk or formula should be your baby’s only drink, along with some water from 6 months on. Waiting until then will help reduce the risk of allergies and prevent your child from both over-indulging cow’s milk and refusing breast milk.

A2 MILK
There are two main types of proteins found in milk, casein (which makes up a majority of proteins in milk) and whey. Beta-casein is one of the main types of casein proteins that come in two forms, A2 and A1. A2 beta-casein was the original type of milk protein found in all dairy herds thousands of years ago, before a mutation of European breeds lead to the appearance of A1 beta-casein in these herds. Guernsey and Jersey cows generally contain the highest percentage of A2 beta-casein, compared to most dairies that use mainly Holstein cows, which produce most of our A1beta-casein in Australia.
A2 milk basically has the same nutritional content as conventional cow’s milk, and similar lactose levels. The difference is how A2 beta-casein is digested, it doesn’t produce the potent opioid BCM-7, which can cause digestive problems, and undesirable effects on neurological and immune cells.1 Studies suggest that β-CM7 may also play a role in behavioral disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.2

LACTOSE-FREE MILK
Lactose-free milk has all of the same nutritional benefits as conventional cow’s milk. The only difference is that the enzyme lactase has been added. Lactase breaks down the milk sugar lactose, that causes digestive problems in people with lactose intolerance. This is a good milk alternative for toddlers and children with lactose intolerance, but not for children who have a cow’s milk allergy.

ORGANIC
You should always choose organic milk where you can as it is produced without growth hormones, antibiotics, or synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.

GOAT’S MILK
Goat’s milk can make a great first milk alternative for young toddlers, especially for those who have digestive complaints such as colic and reflux, or who are intolerant to cow’s milk. Goat’s milk vitamin and mineral content is very close to that that of cow’s milk. Goat’s milk actually contains more calcium, and vitamin A, than cow’s milk, and is a little lower in lactose, which may benefit some children who are lactose intolerant. Goat’s milk doesn’t provide the same level of vitamin B12 or folic acid that cow’s milk does, however, so if you are giving your child goat’s milk, you should also boost their diet with foods rich in these nutrients such as fish, lamb, eggs, cheese, and dark green leafy vegetables and legumes. Goat’s milk contains similar amounts of protein to cow’s milk, and contains A2 beta-casein. The proteins in goat’s milk, and smaller fat globules, tend to be easier to digest and less allergic for infants.

SOY MILK
Soy milk is another milk alternative that may be given to toddlers and children who have a cow’s milk allergy or lactose-intolerance, or who are following a vegan diet. Be aware though that soy is also a common allergen in children who are allergic to cow’s milk. Soy milk contains similar protein levels to whole milk, and adequate calories for your growing toddler. Choose a ‘regular’ soy which contains the highest amount of saturated fat, at 4g per cup, over the low-fat variety that are not recommended for children under 2. Fat is not only a good energy source for growing toddlers but is also needed for brain development. Soy milk does not naturally contain adequate amounts of calcium for toddlers, so make sure you buy one that is fortified with calcium. Soy milk contain phytates that can reduce the absorption of calcium, so it is a good idea to also increase calcium rich foods such as broccoli, tahini, kale, yoghurt and cheese in your child’s diet. Make sure you also buy soy milk that is fortified with vitamin A and D. Soy milk is also lacking in vitamin B12, which is found only in animal foods.
Soybeans and soy milk contains chemicals called isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens that exert a weak oestrogenic effect on the body. There are concerns that these isoflavones could potentially have an effect on children’s growth and development if eaten to excess. Organic soy milk is safe for children to consume in moderation as part of a well balanced diet. If you are giving your child milk alternatives it is a good idea to give them a variety of milks, for example: organic regular soy milk on cereal, almond milk in smoothies, and quinoa or calcium and protein enriched rice milk in warm drinks.
Only buy organic soy milk that is free from genetically modified soybeans, and chemical pesticides. Also watch out for soy milk brands that contain high levels of added sugars. You can buy sugar-free varieties.

ALMOND MILK
Almond milk is a great alternative for children who are lactose intolerant or allergic to casein or soy. Avoid almond milk if you have nut allergies in the family. Almond milk is a good source of calcium, having only slightly lower levels compared to cow’s milk, and contains vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant, and vitamin D and A. Where almond milk falls short is in protein, with only 1g per cup of protein compared to 8g per cup found in cow’s milk. Almond milk is also low in fat, which is important for toddlers under 2. Almond milk also lacks the B vitamins found in cow’s milk. Some brands have a lot of added sugars, so read labels carefully for sugar, or agave, rice or cane syrup. Sugar-free almond milks are readily available. Almond milk can be more expensive than other types of milk, however you can make it easily at home.

RICE MILK
Rice milk can be given to children who have allergies to both cow’s and soy milk. Rice milk naturally contains very little protein, fat, and calories and is not considered a good nutritional replacement for cow’s milk for young toddlers. You can however buy protein-enriched rice milk with added chickpeas, and varieties fortified with vitamins and minerals such as calcium and vitamin D, which have levels similar to that of cow’s milk. Rice milk also lacks vitamin A and B vitamins. Rice milk is the most hypoallergenic of all the milk substitutes and can make a good alternative to whole milk if you choose a fortified variety that contains all the important nutrients your growing child needs. Rice milk has a naturally sweet taste as it is higher in natural sugars than other milks.

QUINOA MILK
Quinoa (pronounced keen-wah) milk is made from quinoa seeds, and has the consistency of rice milk with a nutty taste. Quinoa is considered a superfood as it is rich in phytonutrients and highly nutritious. It is a good source of high quality protein, providing 4g of protein per cup, compared to whole milk which has 8g per cup. Quinoa milk contains 2g of saturated fats, which is comparable to that of low fat cow’s milk, but it also has 5g of beneficial unsaturated fats, including heart healthy oleic acid. Quinoa milk is suitable for anyone with lactose intolerance, milk allergies, or gluten intolerance. However it lacks calcium, vitamin A and D, which are all important nutrients your kids need for growth and development. If you are giving your children quiona milk you must boost their diets with foods rich in these essential nutrients. Good sources of vitamin A and D include fish, meat, eggs, and cod liver oil. Some brands of quinoa have added sugars, so look out for agave syrup or corn maltodextrin on the ingredient panel.

OAT MILK
Oat milk is another milk alternative for children who are allergic to cow’s milk, have lactose intolerance, or who are vegetarian. Oat milk may not be suitable for children with gluten intolerance though. Oat milk contains around half the protein content of cow’s milk, with 4 g of protein per cup, so you would need to make sure that your child was getting adequate amounts of protein through other foods in their diet, such as fish, nuts, seeds, red meat, eggs, chicken, legumes, yoghurt, and tofu. Oat milk has more protein than almond or rice milk, which have only 1g per cup. Oat milk is also naturally low in calcium so choose an oat milk that is calcium fortified to a similar level to cow’s milk. It is also relatively low in fat, which young toddlers need. Oat milk is higher in carbohydrates than most other milks, similar to rice milk, and is higher in fibre.

COCONUT MILK
Coconut milk is much higher in saturated fats than any other milk, containing a whooping 51g per cup, compared to cows milk with 5g. Coconut milk is lacking in protein and calcium, so it doesn’t make a good substitute for cow’s milk. Coconut milk is ideal though for making curries, healthy desserts, and other dishes with for your family.
It is always recommended to seek advice from a professional nutritionist or naturopath before making any major changes such as excluding dairy from to your children’s diet.

References
1.Schulte-Frohlinde E, Schmid R, Brantl V, Schusdziarra V, (1994). Effect of bovine beta-casomorphin-4-amide on gastrointestinal transit and pancreatic endocrine function in man In: Brantl V, Teschemacher H, eds. Beta-Casomorphins and related peptides: recent developments. New York: VCH Weinheim; 155-60.
Kurek M, Przybilla B, Hermann K, Ring J, (1992). A naturally occurring opioid peptide from cow’s milk, beta-casomorphine-7, is a direct histamine releaser in man. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 97(2), 115-20.
Meisel H, FitzGerald R.J, (2000). Opioid peptides encrypted in intact milk protein sequences. Br J Nutr. 84 (Suppl 1), S27-31.
Elitsur Y, Luk G.D, (1991). Beta-casomorphin (BCM) and human colonic lamina propria lymphocyte proliferation. Clin Exp Immunol. 85(3), 493-7.
Kayser H, Meisel H, (1996). Stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by bioactive peptides derived from bovine milk proteins. FEBS Lett. 383(1-2), 18-20.
2.Sun Z, Cade J.R, (1999). A Peptide Found in Schizophrenia and Autism Causes Behavioral Changes in Rats. Autism. 3(1), 85-95.
Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM, Lind G, Nodland M: Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism. Brain Dysfunction 1991; 4: 308-319.

Lisa Guy is a homeopath and naturopath who runs ‘Art of Healing’ (www.artofhealing.com.au) and The Happy Baby Clinic and author of “My Goodness: all you need to know about children’s health and nutrition”

As published in nurtureparentingmagazine.com.au